Proceedings of the Fifth Princeton/AIAA Conference on Space Manufacturing
May 18-21, 1981
Published by American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
- I. International and Legal Considerations
- II. Manufacturing
- III. Electromagnetic Accelerators
- IV. Social Sciences
- V. Novel Concepts
- VI. Material Resources and Processing
- VII. Space Stations and Habitats
An On-Site Delphi at Princeton ’81. Arthur M. Harkins, University of Minnesota, Kerry M. Joels, National Air and Space Museum.
Abstract: A three round Delphi was conducted during the Space Manufacturing Facilities 4 Conference. A data entry and on-site computer facility permitted a process that normally takes weeks to be done in hours. The Delphi allowed all conferees to voice their opinions on vital issues affecting space exploration and to input topics and issues they wished raised. An interesting profile of issues and participants emerged. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Institutional Aspects of International Co-Operation in Space Manufacturing. Nandasari Jasentuliyana, United Nations.
Abstract: These remarks hope to identify some of the key issues relevant to institutional aspects of international cooperation in space manufacturing. The fact that space manufacturing will take place in an environment beyond the jurisdiction of States and in an area where special norms and legal principles operate, international cooperation and participation in future projects of space manufacturing is inevitable. As we proceed in our technical efforts toward realizing space manufacturing projects, I am confident that the international community can and will establish an international institutional framework to fully utilize the benefits that this technology offers mankind. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Space Manufacturing and the Proposed Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. Eilene Galloway, International Institute of Space Law
Abstract: Space manufacturing is already subject to U. S. ratified treaties and some of their provisions are repeated in the proposed Moon Agreement. Additional provisions in the Moon treaty, however, require analysis to determine probable consequences, particularly with regard to the common heritage of mankind and creation of an international regime. The Moon Agreement does not apply to space activities in earth orbit or between the earth and such orbits, an area projected for space manufacturing; the Agreement applies only to the Moon, other celestial bodies and their orbits and not to outer space (which is, however, covered by the 1967 Outer Space Treaty). The Government is already responsible for space activities. The roles of government and industry for aeronautics have been satisfactorily worked out but this has not been done for government and astronautics which require unique types of regulation. Different legal norms exist in airspace and outer space; the Moon Agreement would add another distinction between earth orbiting satellites and those which are beyond but not on the moon and other celestial bodies. Precise definitions are required. Government regulation should be based on both spatial and functional concepts and it is the responsibility of scientists and engineers to provide basic information concerning conditions for technological success so that national and international law and institutions will contribute to, and not hinder, progress. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Space Manufacturing: The Stake, Interest, and Potential Role of Developing Nations. Marta Ceheisky, National Science Foundation.
Abstract: The exploration and exploitation of space has been largely the preserve of highly industrialized nations. Developing nations, when they have participated in space based activities, have done so largely as consumers (e.g., satellite communications or remote sensing) or as regulators (e.g., International telecommunications Union, Outer Space Treaty, Moon Treaty). In both capacities, however, they have demonstrated a clear interest in the potential of space for addressing Earthly needs and a concern that this potential be realized in a manner recognizing the claims of nations that are not yet space powers. The exploitation of space resources can be carried out in ways more or less beneficial to the interests of developing nations. They have consequently expressed considerable increased interest in international space policy and its implications and in the elaboration of rules by which space activities of all kinds are to be governed. Despite limitations on technical and human resources, developing nations have increased their participation in the discussions of international rules governing space activity. Their clear superiority in numbers, growing awareness and expertise, and increasingly active role in space (actual and planned) provides them with a basis for influencing the definition of the legal and regulatory framework for space. The ability of established space powers to engage in precedent setting space ventures relying on already existing space law looms as an important issue for developing nations. However, they may have a unique opportunity in the coming decades preceeding the institutionalization of regimes governing a variety of space operations, including space manufacturing and lunar exploitation, to enhance their role by increasing their participation in cooperative space projects. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Recent Trends in Space Law: Focus on the LDCs. Stephen Gorove, University of Mississippi Law Center.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the accomplishments of LDC-s in the light of WARC ’79 and the Moon Agreement. One of the most important tasks that policy makers at the international level have to perform involves a careful analysis of the ever-changing trends in the world community. Global developments, whether political, economic or legal, must be studied in the context of these trend perspectives. Trends signify a general direction, tendency or course of events over a period of time. A series of events, within the frame of reference of the particular subject matter may be viewed in terms of the decision-makers or may also be evaluated through content analysis of relevant international legal instruments to determine changes in value positions. The purpose of this inquiry is to review some of the recent trends in international space law in the light of the aspirations of the less developed countries (LDC-s) and the implications of these for the technologically advanced countries. My presentation will focus on two major developments in point: (A) the accomplishments of the LDC-s as they relate to the use of the geostationary orbit and the planning of space services utilizing it, with particular attention to the World Administrative Radio Conference of 1979 (WARC ‘ 79) and, (B) the achievements of the LDC-s as they relate to the principle of the “common heritage of mankind” in the light of the Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
International Space Policy and the Interests of the United States and Developing Countries. Bruce Bon, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Abstract: The opening for signature of the “Agreement Governing the Activities of States on The Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,” commonly known as the “Moon Treaty,” has initiated controversy over many aspects of the relationships between the space-faring nations and the developing countries..This is caused largely by provisions of the Moon Treaty which seek to implement a “new international economic order” in space, giving benefits and partial control of space activities to nations which have no space capability or investment. This paper will discuss principles which must be upheld in order to protect U.S. interests in space, the potential impact of the Moon Treaty on these principles, how to satisfy the legitimate needs of developing countries while protecting U.S. interests, and how to enhance the probability of success in future negotiations concerning space. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Military Implications of a Satellite Power System. J. Peter Vajk, Science Applications, Inc., Robert Salkeld, Consultant, Richard D. Stutzke, Science Applications, Inc., Gerald W. Driggers, Consultant, and G. Harry Stine, Consultant.
Abstract: The development and deployment of a Satellite Power System (SPS) to provide energy to Earth in large quantities would result in an enormous expansion of operational capabilities in space, together with major advances in a number of technologies. These developments raise major questions about the military implications of these new capabilities and technologies, while the magnitude of the investments required to deploy power satellites and related facilities for their construction, operation, and maintenance raises questions about their vulnerability to assaults by hostile groups or nations. In this paper, we summarize some of the highlights of an extensive assessment of the threats posed by SPS, the vulnerabilities of the Reference Design SPS, and potential safeguards against these threats and vulnerabilities. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
International Resource Allocation Policy Governing Asteroidal Wealth. Martin A. Rothblatt, University of California.
Abstract: This paper discusses the international legal regime which governs exploitation of the Apollo-Amor asteroids for their resource values. It is found that international space resource law is premised upon the maximum value dispersion principle. This principle requires maximum growth in the depth and distribution of space resource channels. Potential asteroid development rules are analyzed for conformance with the maximum value dispersion principle, and recommendations are made for constructive law-making activity. These recommendations include the creation of a Universal Asteroid Development Organization (UNIVAST) as a means of expediting the dispersion asteroidal wealth, much as the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) is shown in the paper to have maximized the dispersion of orbit/spectrum values. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Space Manufacturing Facilities and the Law of Telecommunications: Invisible Resources and International Law. A. L. Moore, Legal Consultant.
Abstract: Where the use of the radio frequency spectrum and geostationary orbit is involved as with solar power satellites and space manufacturing facilities, it is necessary to have a high degree of international agreement and coordination as a technical matter. The forum for reaching such agreement is provided under the auspices of the International Telecommunication Union. The paper reviews recent decisions of the ITU dealing specifically with solar power satellites, the geostationary orbit and space services using it. When the system’s requirements are coordinated with global telecommunication networks, then SPS may evolve with safeguards for capital investment and for economic and efficient operational conditions. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
International Legal Regimes for Outer Space Resources — Solar Power Satellites. Edward R. Finch Jr., Finch and Schaefler, Attorneys.
Abstract: Outer space is by nature international. Outer space is the key in the development of old and new global resources for the earth. Outer space is the key to world energy, materials and world peace. All mankind on earth accepts the freedom of the seas and the freedom of outer space as fundamental principles of international law and order. The lesser developed countries, peacefully through the United Nations, seek equitable sharing, via “province of all mankind,” “common heritage,” and the possible future “international resources regimes” for outer space. We are entering a global resources shortage war. Look at oil and energy. Look at phosphate for fertilizer and food. The position of President Reagan for the new United States space policy is reviewed. The 1979 Moon Treaty, now signed by eight nations, is reviewed. The super powers in outer space, and the LDCs position in the global resources war is reviewed from the point of view of existing and pending international treaties. The legal principles for a suggested model for the proposed “international regime” for the future, in the interest of super powers, and the LDCs is presented. “International regimes” for global resources are proposed, bearing in mind the economic interests of private enterprise and governments, in common law, socialist law, and Communist law countries, known as Ecospace. With the launch of the United States Space Shuttle, a new era in outer space has begun. Pollution-free energy from outer space is one of the compelling factors in the future of Ecospace — the economics of outer space activity. This concept was first explored in depth at the American Bar Association’s annual meeting in August, 1975, by the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Aerospace Panel and at formal meetings constituting the ABA Presidential Program. Outer space holds the keys to world peace. How fast mankind advances in SPS in outer space is controlled by Ecospace. A 1981 Estimate from Sunsat Energy Council solidly projects a photovoltaic 15 GW Solar Power Satellite with 8 pivoting panels and two transmitting antennas at cost of $1,458. per Kilowatt. Estimated cost of electricity at utility interface between 2-1/2¢ and 10¢ per Kwh. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
A Self-Replicating, Growing Lunar Factory. Robert A. Freitas Jr., Space Initiative/XRI and William B. Zachary, San Jose State University.
Abstract: The theory of self-reproducing automata and existing automation technology make feasible the design of a self-replicating, self-growing factory on the Moon. One possible design for such a system is presented, capable of being grown from an initial 100 ton “seed.” A mission scenario, operational phases, growth, and productivity of the Lunar Manufacturing Facility are briefly considered, followed by a discussion of quantitative materials closure in the baseline lunar replicating design. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
An Hierarchical System Architecture for Automated Design, Fabrication, and Repair. Rodger A. Cliff, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
Abstract: Using ideas borrowed from current industrial practice, top-down structured programming, and biology, a system architecture has been created which could perform automated design, fabrication, and repair of complex systems. The architecture is configured in such a way as to be readily analyzable mathematically. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
A Feasibility Study on the Fabrication of Integrated Circuits and Other Electronic Components. W. B. Zachary, San Jose State University.
Abstract: Feasibility arguments are presented concerning the fabrication, in space, of 5 key types of electronic components utilized in computers and robots. These include integrated circuits, capacitors, resistors, printed-circuit boards, and wire. It is concluded that laser beam, electron beam, ion beam, vacuum evaporation, and other developing technologies are in fact rather compatible with the relatively clean, vacuum environment of space. Furthermore, the 5 key types of electronic components can all be manufactured from materials obtainable from lunar soil. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Remote Teleoperation Earth to Moon — An Experiment. Al Globus, Santa Cruz, Calif.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine, to a first approximation, if the delay time inherent in Earth to Moon communication was an insurmountable barrier to driving vehicles via teleoperation. A computer program was written and run on a system with real-time graphics that simulated driving a vehicle on the Moon from an office on Earth. Subjects viewed the terrain and vehicle from above rather than out the window. The controls were simplified. There was a three second delay between the time subjects activated the controls and when they saw the resulting motion of the vehicle. Serious problems were encountered on only the most difficult of three mazes used, and some of these problems may be attributable to deficiencies in the controls. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
The Economics of Bootstrapping Space Industries-Development of an Analytic Computer Model. Aaron H. Goldberg, Lunar & Planetary Institute, and David R. Criswell, California Space Institute.
Abstract: A simple economic model of “bootstrapping” industrial growth in space and on the moon is presented. An initial space manufacturing facility (SMF) is assumed to consume lunar materials to enlarge the productive capacity in space. After reaching a predetermined throughput the enlarged SMF is devoted to products which generate revenue continuously in proportion to the accumulated output mass (such as space solar power stations. Present discounted value and physical estimates for the general factors of production (transport, capital efficiency, labor, etc.) are combined to explore optimum growth in terms of maximized discounted revenues. It is found that “bootstrapping” reduces the fractional cost of a space industry of transport off-Earth, permittinq more efficient use of a given transport fleet. It is concluded that more attention should be given to structuring “bootstrapping” scenarios in which “learning while doing” can be more fully incorporated in program analysis. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
The Impact on U.S. Industrial Growth of Solar Power Satellites from Space Manufacturing Facilities. Reiner Kummel, Physikalisches Institute der Universitat Wurzburg.
Abstract: A system of differential equations for industrial economies is solved. The obtained production function describes well the industrial development of West Germany and the United States for the years 1960-1978. It is used to calculate U.S. industrial growth for the years 1979-2005, assuming that space industrialization proceeds along O’Neill’s “The Low (Profile) Road to Space Manufacturing,” starting 1986. It is found that the total possible gains of U.S. gross national product are a hundred times larger than the total possible losses. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
A Small Scale Lunar Launcher for Early Lunar Material Utilization. William R. Snow, Joel A. Kubby, and R. Scott Dunbar, Princeton University.
Abstract: A system for the launching of lunar derived oxygen or raw materials into low lunar orbit or to L2 for transfer to low earth orbit is presented. The system described is a greatly simplified version of the conventional and sophisticated approach suggested by O’Neill using mass drivers with recirculating buckets. An electromagnetic accelerator is located on the lunar surface which launches 125 kg “smart” containers of liquid oxygen or raw materials into a transfer orbit. Upon reaching apolune a kick motor is fired to circularize the orbit at 100 km altitude or L2. These containers are collected and their payloads transferred to a tanker OTV. The empty containers then have their kick motors refurbished and then are returned to the launcher site on the lunar surface for reuse. Initial launch capability is designed for about 500T of liquid oxygen delivered to low earth orbit per year with upgrading to higher levels, delivery of lunar soil for shielding, or raw materials for processing given the demand. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
The Supply of Lunar Oxygen to Low Earth Orbit. D. G. Andrews, The Boeing Company and W. R. Snow, Princeton University.
Abstract: Oxygen comprises 40% by weight of the composition of lunar soil. This lunar oxygen can be used as a source of relatively inexpensive propellant for chemical orbit transfer vehicles (OTV) operating between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). Chemical OTV’s using liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen propellants operate at an oxidizer/fuel ratio of 6:1. Since oxygen comprises 86% of the total mass of propellants which would normally have been brought up from the Earth to LEO, considerable savings are available if this oxygen can be obtained from the moon for little delta-V penalty. The mass driver/space manufacturing facility concept has previously been developed for constructing solar power satellites from nonterrestrial materials. By scaling down and simplifying it to only the production of liquid oxygen and using present day technology, near term use of lunar materials appears attractive. Presented here is a scenario in which 400 T/yr of LOX is delivered to LEO with the ability for upgrading to 5000 T/yr. In the proposed scenario, cylindrical tanks of liquid oxygen with a mass of 500 kg are launched from the lunar surface by a mass driver and rendezvous with a collection station in a 100 km lunar orbit. The oxygen is removed from each tank and placed into a tanker OTV which later will transfer from low lunar orbit to LEO with an aerobraking maneuver. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Recent Developments in Mass Drivers. Gerard K. O’Neill, Princeton University.
Abstract: In the past eight months a new mass driver concept has been explored through calculation and inductance model verification. It retains the linear synchronous principle and freedom from arcs, plasmas or physical contact between the accelerated bucket and accelerator. However, it discards passive magnetic flight and obtains transverse focussing from strong off-axis restoring forces produced by drive coils operating in a pull-only mode. This paper gives the reasoning on which the new concept is based, and applies the concept to a lunar catapult design. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Lateral Deflections of the Mass Driver Bucket. Stephen Leete, Princeton University.
Abstract: Calculations of the mutual inductance between two coils with unequal radii and parallel axes have been performed. These allow us to find the force due to a single drive coil on a bucket coil which has a lateral displacement. An experiment was performed to inductively measure the mutual inductance for this case, which confirmed the results of the calculations. The average lateral and axial forces on a bucket as a function of drive current wave length and timing were found using values of the mutual inductance gradient found from the aforementioned calculations. This resulted in a method for optimizing drive current waveforms in terms of lateral and axial force characteristics. It was found that a linear restoring force can be produced in the absence of drive coils which is on the order of 1% of the axial force, and which scales linearly with the axial force. Thus for high acceleration mass drivers this could result in a stronger restoring force than is obtainable from guide strips. Therefore guide strips can be eliminated, which will lead to a more efficient acceleration of the bucket. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Precision Release and Aim of Payloads Launched by Lunar Mass-Driver. T. A. Heppenheimer, Center for Space Science, David J. Ross, Advanced Propulsion Technology, and Eric C. Hannah, Hewlett-Packard Research Laboratories.
Abstract: Payloads launched by lunar mass-driver do not incorporate onboard midcourse correction, and their trajectories must accurately attain a specified launch state. We offer an integrated mass-driver launch system employing several novel features. We discuss payload containment and release, proposing a means for low-dispersion release. We propose “electromagnetic fins” for passive eddy-current damping of oscillations of the payload carriers (buckets). We consider the magnetic interaction of payload and bucket during payload separation and release, as a source of launch errors. We propose a novel optical scanner and note its use in a sequence which determines position errors of a payload center of mass. Finally, we indicate applications of basic mass-driver technology to the magnetic correction of payload trajectories, discussing adjustment of both transverse and longitudinal velocity components. It appears that the largest residual error source is a transverse velocity component about 0.003 cm/sec, which for a mass-catcher near the L2 libration point implies a circular error probable of diameter about 3 meters. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Electrostatic Velocity Adjustment of Payloads Launched by Lunar Mas-Driver. T. A. Heppenheimer, Center for Space Science; David J. Ross, Advanced Propulsion Technology; Eric C. Hannah, Hewlett-Packard Research Laboratories.
Abstract: Payloads launched by lunar mass-driver do not incorporate onboard midcourse correction capability, and their trajectories must be accurately adjusted to a specified launch state. We consider electrostatic methods for this adjustment. For adjustment transverse to the flight path, we propose a cylindrical array of parallel rods surrounding the flight path, which simulate a capacitor formed from oppositely-charged hemicylinders. We give a solution for the action on a spherical payload of its multiple charged rods, and present reference configurations for which the capacitance is given analytically. The transverse force is about 50 newtons/megavolt2. For adjustment of velocity magnitude we propose a tandem array of conducting toroids, their central holes forming a tunnel for the flight path. We treat capacitance and performance for a single charged tor-oid; again the longitudinal force generated is 50 newtons/megavolt2. We derive a stability criterion for longitudinal adjustment. We discuss problems posed by the required high static voltages, noting breakdown mechanisms and critical voltages, effects of dust, charging of payloads, and solar wind effects. The most serious problem appears to be preventing breakdown (arcing) initiated by loose dust particles from the payloads. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Single Stage Pulsed Induction Reaction Engine. Peter Mongeau, Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory (MIT).
Abstract: A magnetic induction reaction engine is described which uses aluminum or any other good metallic conductor as reaction mass. A capacitor discharge is used to excite a pulse coil which is magnetically coupled very strongly to an aluminum foil ring serving as the reaction mass. This mass is repelled at a high velocity and vaporizes during the discharge thus avoiding the problems of a trail of solid particles. Velocities above 1 km/s and accelerations of 10 million gee’s of gram size masses are demonstrated. Modeling indicates that a tenfold increase in performance at above 90 percent efficiency is possible. Suitable charging and switching schemes for a high thrust system are discussed. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
A Low Cost Earth Based Launch System and Its Effects on Space Industrialization. Dani Eder, New York, N.Y.
Abstract: The paper describes a low cost launch system which uses a compressed hydrogen gas gun to launch a reuseable solid fuel rocket. The launch system can be used to deliver payloads to low earth orbit. Development and construction costs are estimated to be $50 million and operating costs $15/kg at a launch rate of 48 tons/day. A low cost launch system changes the optimum scenario for and lowers the overall cost of initiating space industry. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
An Electromagnetic First Stage Space Cargo Launcher. H. Kolm, P. Mongeau, F. Williams, P. Graneau, and K. McKinney, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Abstract: The electromagnetic launching of space cargo to full earth escape velocity is premature in that the required energy storage involves a level of investment not justified by present use rates, and the launch velocity requires voltage levels beyond the present state of switching technology. However, it is economically and technically feasible at present to replace the first stage chemical booster of a scout launch system (for instance) by an electromagnetic catapult energized by available line power, using a large inductor as the only energy storage device. The proposed 10 km long launcher might be installed up the west slope of a Sierra Nevada mountain, be supplied from the Pacific Intertie dc powerline, and cost about 300 M$. It would reduce launch mass from 45,000 to 15,000 kg, and launch cost from 50 to perhaps 3 M$ including amortization of the installation. The overall cost per pound of playload would thereby be reduced from $7,000 to $1,400. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Current Space Policy Controversies — An Observer’s Perspective. J. M. Logsdon, George Washington University.
Abstract: This paper discusses the question of “what next?” for the U.S. space program, particularly in terms of the likelihood of a substantial commitment to a major new space goal. It points out that such a commitment is required if the United States is to maintain a healthy technological base for its national space effort and keep the civilian space program active and energetic. The emphasis in the paper is on the political feasibility of various options for major new space projects. The paper reviews candidate projects in the science, exploration, civilian applications, and military applications areas. It views proposals for a space operations center as a continuation of the development of an infrastructure for space activities, i.e., as a means rather than an end. The paper concludes that the outlook for a national commitment to a major post-shuttle goal seems dim. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Space Policy: The Context of Legislation. Charles M. Chafer, Georgetown University.
Abstract: The future direction of the U.S. civilian space program — specifically whether a national commitment to space manufacturing and industrialization will be forthcoming — depends on political decisions which will be considered and implemented within an environment of political, economic, and social trends and competing priorities. This paper examines previous U.S. space policy decisions and retrospectively assesses some of the fundamental influences on those decisions using environmental analysis techniques. In addition, the paper analyzes the context for space policy legislation in the 1980’s, including the possibility that a favorable space policy environment will emerge in the latter half of the decade. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
The Improving Socio-Political Situation of the American Space Program in the Early 1980’s. Robert D. McWilliams, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Abstract: The bulk of this report constitutes an indepth analysis of a recent trend toward increasing public support for the space exploration program. It is indicated that this development is probably not basically connected to rising support for increased military and defense spending, nor does it appear to be a consequence of any growing general faith in science and technology within the American public. Evidence is offered to suggest that the trend is rather a function of increasing public realization that the space program has in the past and can in the future provide pragmatic benefits to the nation, primarily in informational and economic-industrial areas. Data regarding the demographic and political correlates of space spending opinion are also analysed, which indicate that the social base of popular support for the space program has begun to broaden considerably, and suggest the conclusion that growing enthusiasm for space exploration in America is likely to continue into at least the near future. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Exploring and Settling Pacific Ocean Space-Past Analogues for Future Events? Ben R. Finney, University of Hawaii.
Abstract: Because the vastness of the Pacific (one-third of the world) and the isolation of its islands from continental shores posed such a great challenge to the human spirit and ability for technological innovation, those interested in the human aspects of moving into space may find it most interesting to examine the record of the exploration and settlement of this greatest of oceans. This perspective will be introduced by first sketching the outline of the prehistoric penetration of the Pacific by Polynesian canoe voyagers, and the later history of the European exploration of that ocean. Then those experiences will be considered in each development which appear to relate most directly to those we may undergo in exploring and settling space. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Cooperating Ethnotronic and Ethnobiological Systems in Space. Arthur M. Harkins, University of Minnesota.
Abstract: Ethnotronics is the science and technology of researching, developing, and evaluating electronic systems into which human culture has been embedded. Ethnobiologics is a term coined by the writer to refer to human and other “wet” organic systems which have culture embedded within them. This paper will discuss the development of smart ethnotronic and future “intelligent” systems in the context of debates over the place of humans in the space environment. As the title of the paper suggests, cooperation between human (“ethnobiological”) and ethnotronic systems is a reasonable and perhaps already foreordained evolutionary path in space and on the ground. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
One Thousand Channels: A Promise, A Problem, A Parable. Kerry M. Joels, National Air and Space Museum.
Abstract: Increasing availability of Satellite communications channels will have a profound impact on telecommunication services. How these services will affect the marketplace, the public in general, and the civilian space endeavor is explored. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Rethinking Our Space Future. Gordon R. Woodcock, Boeing Aerospace Company.
Abstract: Economic growth and national security are urgent national goals. This paper will concentrate on the economic potentials of the space program and how these might be advanced without committing to very large publicly-funded ventures or high-risk, low-technical-confidence systems. Future space industry can make significant contributions to our economic growth and realizing this potential should be the main thrust of rethinking our space future. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
A Decision-Analytic Evaluation of the SPS Program. A. Blair Ireland, Princeton University.
Abstract: SPS is a research, development and demonstration project spanning at least two decades and involving substantial changes in technology. The project is divided into discrete subprojects, each of which results in the development of identifiable technologies. The manager must make a “go/no-go” decision for each subproject based on the results of previous subprojects. This paper evaluates those decisions quantitatively. The methodology centers on detailed cost and revenue models. The outcome of each R.D.& D. subproject is represented as an ordered set of the input factors to these models. The outcome set of the final subproject determines the expected value to society (net of user costs) of the project. The value of a subproject is quantified using a process of backward induction. The net expected value of any subproject is the expected value of the subproject given success, weighted by the probability of success, less the cost of the subproject. The expected value of a subproject given success is the value of the succeeding subproject. If the net value of a subproject is positive, it is assumed the manager will make a “go” decision. Because of the very large number of cost factors in the model, only major cost drivers are represented as probability density functions. The rest are treated deterministically. The major cost drivers are determined from the cost model using a fractional factorial design of resolution IV, based on factor values presently available. A similar process is applied to the revenue model. The methodology evaluates the following quantities: (1) Expected values for each subproject, (2) Probabilities of “go” decisions at all future decision points, (3) Major cost and revenue drivers. This methodology differs from those used in previous SPS system evaluations in that it addresses each R.D.& D. subproject separately and apart from commercialization. The decision to proceed with the development of any front-end technology involves uncertainty associated with only that technology, and in no way commits the manager to the huge expenditures involved in full-scale commercialization. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
A Modular Low Cost Launch Vehicle System: The Percheron Project. Gary C. Hudson, Tom A. Brosz, David J. Ross, Clifton Home, and Eric Laursen, G. C. H., Inc.
Abstract: The Percheron Project is an effort to design and build a family of low cost launch vehicles assembled from multiples of a single propulsion module. The use of off-the-shelf industrial processes, technology and components as opposed to aerospace equivalents has been applied to the design and construction of launch vehicles. In application Percheron will be a multiple configuration space transportation system with emphasis on Earth resources survey missions. It will carry payloads in the range of 2000 to 3000 pounds. The basic system will be capable of achieving low earth orbits with inclinations on the order of the latitude of launch as well as polar orbits. Through the use of upper stages geostationary orbits will be achievable. Low earth orbit pay-loads will have the option of being recoverable. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Force at a Distance — The Case for Active Compressional Structure. Ray Sperber, GTE Satellite Corporation.
Abstract: Technologies for projecting forces over distances are considered. At a distance between 1 and 10 kilometers with today’s power technology it may require less mass to counter compressional forces by throwing and catching masses than use of connected structural members requires. No energy recovery is assumed during catching. For lack of a better description, this technology is called active compressional structure. An additional advantage that active structures have over standard “passive” structures is more benign overload behavior. With a large dynamic extension and compression range, they collapse evenly without the sudden large lateral forces found in the buckling behavior of passive structures. An application of active compressional structure is used in conjunction with cables to create large (greater than 10 km) structures in space. A representative case using an active beam as the backbone of an advanced 50 Gw solar power satellite is described. The dynamics of a simple active beam are developed. Emphasis is on determining damping ratio of the system as a whole and stability of the thrown mass column against bunching. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
The Geosynchronous Tidal Web, A Method for Constructing an Ultra-Large Space Structure. R. E. Simberg, Manhattan Beach, Calif.
Abstract: A method is proposed by which a two dimensional tension structure millions of square kilometers in area may be constructed in geosynchronous orbit, using present materials technology. The structure consists of a ring of cables held taut by gravity-gradient, extended all the way around the planet. Such a ring would be useful for enlarging the effective geosynchronous region, reducing or eliminating collision hazards, reducing station-keeping thrust pollution in industrial regions, and providing an anchor for orbital towers or “skyhooks”. A static load analysis is performed and potential drawbacks and stability problems are discussed. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Useful Properties and Novel Methods for Transportation of Lunar Soil in or to Earth Orbit. R. D. Waldron, Rockwell International Corporation.
Abstract: Lunar Soil (Regolith) has been proposed as a raw material in its native, semi-refined or chemically processed or refined forms for products, structures , propel 1 ants and biosupport expendables for use on the moon, in space, and perhaps eventually for use in the terrestrial economy. The potential advantages in energy, dollar and transportation costs for lunar vs terrestrial materials for large scale space applications have been stressed in previous studies. Fig. 1 shows the gravitational potential and total orbital energy in the earth-moon-sun system at full moon. While the potential energy required to reach near earth orbit (point A) is not too large, the corresponding total energy (point A’) represents over one-half the earth escape energy. Transport from the moon to low earth orbit, on the other hand, can be accomplished by bringing mass to lunar orbit (points b, b’), lunar escape (C) and capture in earth orbit by dynamic braking or other means. It is apparent that appreciable economies in mass to earth orbit (or to space in general) can only be realized if repetitive or continuous delivery systems can be provided which are substantially independent of earth propellant requirements since these would usually outweigh (or out-mass!) the lunar soil payload. This has prompted a modest but sizeable effort in study of alternatives to chemical rocket launching methods such as electromagnetic or mechanical mass drivers. Actual deployment of such systems will probably require a manned mission to the moon and possibly a manned operation at the trajectory retrieval points. It was felt that an alternative system on a smaller scale with less stringent launch accuracy requirements which could be installed and operated on the moon without a manned mission, might win budgetary approval at an earlier date and thus accelerate industrial development of space. This paper will discuss some important applications which would become possible with such a system which we shall designate the Lunar Dust Transfer System (LDTS) and describe in some detail its elements and operations as well as its merits and drawbacks. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Solar Powered Stratospheric Platform (SPSP). E. C. Okress and R. K. Soberman, Franklin Research Center.
Abstract: One of the major recent results is the reduction in size of the originally (1) proposed platform to the order of 200 ± 100 meters dependng upon altitude. For example, at 20 km a size the order of 100-200 meters is anticipated, whereas at 25 km altitude, for buoyant energy storage, the size increases to 200 to 300 meter. The platform is characterized as a large, constant-volume (vented), solar-powered, heated air, spherical, rigid navigable and hoverable aerostat. It is able to remain aloft at an altitude of 20 to 30 kilometers in the stratosphere on its own solar power with optional life support supplies. It may be launched on its own solar power from the ground or water. Equipped with solar energy conversion and night time buoyant energy storage systems (e.g., solar energized water electrolysis), it will be capable of performing a wide variety of long-term scientific, commercial, and strategic missions in the stratosphere. Most, if not all, of the numberous missions may be conducted simultaneously, due to the unprecedented life capability of the proposed aerostat. Using solar-energized compressed air, it will be capable of 24 hours/day navigation and hovering. Most regions about the Earth may be reached on solar energy alone. Using ground or space directed energy to the aerostat, the inaccessible (i.e., winter polar) regions about the Earth may be also included. Residence in the stratosphere is anticipated throughout the year for an indefinite period (e.g., to 10 years or more). [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Design and Operation of High Performance Space Telescopes. R. L. Frost and J. E. Beckman, Queen Mary College.
Abstract: Full exploitation of the advantages of the space environment for observational cosmology and astrophysics will be achieved only with the deployment of telescopic systems much larger than can be usefully constructed on earth. Here we describe the design and construction of an asteroid-borne giant optical telescope, and a multi-antenna ultra long baseline free-flying radio interferometer. The large scale and extreme tolerances of each instrument will require fabrication in space from non-terrestrial materials, and novel features of optical design. We explain how the science will drive and shape the engineering concepts, as well as giving details of the capabilities and operational requirements of the completed telescopes. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
The Ultimate Telescope — Space Manufacturing and the Gravitational Lens. Eric Cabot Hannah, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories.
Abstract: This paper discusses the physical optics of the gravitational lens and the imperfections of finite mass, oblateness, mass current, and background noise to be expected for the case of the sun. For the sun these factors predict an aperature area of 470 million square meters at 5,000 angstroms wavelength. This implies that stellar objects and even planets in Andromeda are detectable by means of suitable apparatus placed at a distance of 1000 A.U. from the sun. For a supernova in the Andromeda galaxy the solar lens would detect the neutrino flash from the stellar implosion at the rate of 1000 detections per cubic meters of detector per second over the one tenth second of the flash event. Across a QS0 at the far end of the cosmos we expect to resolve over ten billion resolutions elements in the visible. To reach the 1000 A.U. region of the solar system we propose using laser fusion rockets such as are being designed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in conjunction with the Shiva-Nova laser fusion project. Such vehicles could place several hundred tons of pay-load at 1000 A.U. in less than five years flight time. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Beneficiation and Powder Metallurgical Processing of Lunar Soil Metal. William N. Agosto, Rutgers University.
Abstract: A lunar soil metal beneficiation process is proposed using magnetic separation and impact grinding and screening techniques. Such a process could produce in excess of 500 metric tons of pure Fe/Ni per year at a specific energy of 0.41 kwh/kg. Equipment launch costs, including life support, would be 1/10 the cost of launching the output product. Equipment life is estimated to be at least 20 years with routine maintenance based on the operation of comparable terrestrial systems. A three phase research program is discussed which includes, 1) the development of a bench level soil metal beneficiation process and 2) a powder metallurgical process appropriate to the product, and 3) the preparation of a lunar soil simulant using ground chondritic meteorites as the metal source. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Electrophoretic Separation of Lunar Soils in a Space Manufacturing Facility. Jeremy D. Dunning, Indiana University, and Robert S. Snyder, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.
Abstract: The feasibility of electrophoretic separation of lunar soil into its mineral constituents is discussed in this paper. The process and its applicability to lunar soil separation are considered in light of the special requirements of a space manufacturing effort. Data generated in studies at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, which assess the efficiency of electrophoretic separation of lunar soil, are discussed and evaluated. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Progress Report on Experimental Program to Develop HF Acid Leach Process for Refining Lunar Soils. R. Arnold and D. R. Criswell, California Space Institute, and R. D. Waldron, Rockwell International.
Abstract: The HF acid leach process for converting and refining lunar soils into industrial feedstocks has been formulated during more than 3,000 man-hours of analysis over a 3-year period. This report will review the proposed scope and interim level of progress in the R&D project for experimental verification of the process being conducted jointly by Rockwell International and California Space Institute supported by Space Studies Institute. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Electrorefining Process for Lunar Free Metal: Space & Terrestrial Applications and Implications. R. D. Waldron, Rockwell International.
Abstract: An electrochemical refining process is proposed for the separation and recovery of principal and trace elements from reduced metallic particles found in lunar soils. A process variation is presented for purification and recovery of chromium and manganese from electrodeposited impure iron available from lunar silicate and other minerals. The process involves anodic dissolution of impure metal and cathodic deposition in divided cells using aqueous chloride solutions. The anolyte is withdrawn and separated using ion exchange techniques. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Powder Metallurgy in Space Manufacturing. David R. Criswell, California Space Institute.
Abstract: Full development of non-terrestrial resources will require the use of productive systems (tools) fabricated primarily out of non-terrestrial resources. Terrestrial tools and recently conceived processes suitable for production processes in space are reviewed. It is concluded that the full range of basic means of production can be made available in space. One possible minimum set of production tools (starting kit) is proposed which utilizes powdered materials technology. This starting kit could utilize solar energy and the common materials of the moon (or moon-like bodies) to produce a wide range of higher order tools of production and products. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
United States and Soviet Life Sciences Factors in Long-Duration Space Flight. Joseph C. Sharp, NASA Ames Research Center.
Abstract: A general review of the Life Sciences issues affecting long-duration manned missions is presented. Descriptions and examples of the similarities and differences between the Soviet and U.S. life sciences programs are discussed. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Behavioral and Biological Interactions with Confined Microsocieties in a Programmed Environment. Henry H. Emurian and Joseph V. Brady, The Johns Hopkins University, and James L. Meyerhoff and Edward H. Mougey, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.
Abstract: This paper presents a summary of the background, objectives, and methodological approach of an ongoing research project devoted to the analysis of individual and small group performance effectiveness under conditions of isolation and confinement during extended residences in a continuously programmed environment. A more detailed description is provided of the results of a recent series of experiments designed and conducted to assess hormonal and behavioral effects of a change in group membership and size. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Social Ecology and Human Development: A Systems Approach for the Design of Human Communities in Space. Howard I. Thorsheim and Bruce B. Roberts, St. Olaf College.
Abstract: The paper develops social ecology as a systems approach useful for the design of human communities in space, specifically to facilitate socially supportive behaviors among persons. Social ecology involves the study of the interaction among the social and physical aspects of the environment, and the individual, over time. The paper addresses the interaction of (1) social environment, (2) social support systems, (3) physical environment, (4) level of trust, (5) commonality of purpose, (6) coping skills, (7) resolution of conflicts, (8) change over time, (9) existing strengths and, (10) involvement in creating the structures of community. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
Influential Factors of Negative Effects in the Isolated and Confined Environment. S. R. McNeal and B. J. Bluth, California State University.
Abstract: Studies conducted in an Isolated and Confined Environment (ICE) have identified a number of physical and psychological effects as well as individual and group behavior changes associated with an ICE. This ICE symtomology is, however, very similar to a stress symtomology, of which several symptoms are common in every-day situations. The generic term stress is used to refer to behavior responses of an individual to adversive stimuli (stressors) which push the functioning of the individual beyond ordinary, non-emergency coping mechanisms. Stressors exist in a variety of settings and include a broad range of events! ranging from a virus to a vicissitude. Due to the similarity of the ICE symptomology and the stress symptom-ology, it may be that the ICE acts as a catalyst to a host of other factors of greater influence in the development of negative effects reported in an ICE. This potentiality opens a wealth of literature and research related to stress management, applicable to space travelers in terms of training, coping strategies, preparedness for social and psychological problems and alterations of the social and physical environment, which ultimately may reduce the influence of stressors, and mitigate the effects of stress. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]
A Modest Habitation Facility in Low Earth Orbit. Thomas C. Taylor, Taylor & Associates, Inc.
Abstract: This paper discusses a low profile scenario for a manned facility in orbit using several innovative concepts with the External Tank. Contractors learned some lessons at Prudhoe Bay on the Alaskan North Slope that can be applied to orbital development. Various revenue functions can be supported by the ET-derived facility. The interior Human Factors Design is highlighted. [FIRST PAGE from AIAA website]