The Stanford Torus was the principal design considered by the 1975 NASA Summer Study, which was conducted in conjunction with Stanford University (and published as Space Settlements: A Design Study, NASA Publication SP-413). It consists of a torus or donut-shaped ring that is one mile in diameter, rotates once per minute to provide Earth-normal gravity on the inside of the outer ring, and which can house 10,000 people.
“Abalakin” is a large torus depicted by artist Alexander Preuss, winner of the 2008 NSS Space Settlement Calendar Art Contest. © Alexander Preuss.
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“Vademecum” is a 2006 student design similar in size to the Stanford Torus but with a more efficient shape. Painting copyright by Dan Roam courtesy of the artist.
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Additional illustrations of space settlements: