October 4, 1957, when the first artificial satellite began orbiting the Earth, nations reacted with fear of atomic bombs launched by rockets. Sen. Lyndon B. Johnson, Chairman of the Preparedness Subcommittee of the Senate Armed Services Committee, asked Eilene Galloway, National Defense Analyst of the Library of Congress, to serve as Staff Consultant for hearings on U.S. preparedness in space. When it became clear that the problem involved scientists and engineers in more than military aspects, the Senate organized the Special Committee on Space and Astronautics, which Eilene served by formulating questions for witnesses and analyzing testimony.
In 1958, Sen. Johnson sent Eilene to represent the United States at a meeting of the International Court of Justice in The Hague, where she gave a speech on “The Community of Law and Science.” She was also helpful in establishing the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS), where she represented the United States at many meetings. She was Editor of Space Law Senate Symposium (577 pages), The United Nations invited her to speak at its 1995 Congress on Public International Law about “Space Law Role of the United Nations: Organization and Management.”