Proceedings of the Sixth Princeton Conference on Space Manufacturing
May 9-12, 1983
Published by the American Astronautical Society as Vol. 53 of Advances in the Astronautical Sciences
- I. Biomedical and Social Sciences
- II. Space Stations and Habitats
- III. Manufacturing
- IV. International/Legal Considerations
- V. Materials Resources and Processing
- VI. Accelerators and Asteroids
- VII. Economics
Habitability Design Elements for a Space Station. Maynard C. Dalton, NASA Johnson Space Center.
Abstract: Habitability has to do with the nature and quality of an environment, measured in terms of how quickly and completely the people living in that environment can adjust to it and how successfully that environment supports the operational efficiency, personal well-being, and morale of the people. In the context of space stations, we use the term habitability to refer to components, characteristics, conditions and design parameters which include but go beyond the basic life sustaining requirements. Several elements, each pertaining to some aspect of man’s living and his environment, have been defined. These include internal environment, architecture, mobility and restraint, food, clothing, personal hygiene, housekeeping, communications, and crew activities. The general interrelationships and the engineering aspects of these elements are discussed.
Probable Missions and Transportation Scenarios to Use Regenerative Life Support Systems. Tim Vinopal, Edith Gustan, Richard Olson, Boeing Aerospace Corporation.
Abstract: It appears that the use of a regenerative life support system which utilizes growing plants will be an essential part of any long term habitation of space. This paper describes a study of future space missions and the life support systems necessary for each mission. A transportation cost analysis is also completed for each mission and life support system.
Space Stations: The Next Step in Space? John M. Logsdon, George Washington University.
Abstract: This paper explores the question of whether a space station is the appropriate next ma.ior step in the U.S. space program. It briefly traces past space station proposals, then reviews the kind of forces affecting a possible decision within the next few years to proceed with a space station. The station is viewed as an investment opportunity which makes best sense if the United States is likely to pursue an active space program in coming decades.
Understanding Space Settlements as Human Systems. Frank White, President, Human Systems Incorporated.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to lay the foundation for a unified approach to the development of space settlements, using Human Systems Theory as the framework. Human Systems Theory is discussed as an emerging sub-discipline of General Systems Theory and a human systems model is outlined. The theory and model emphasize technology’s role within all human systems and focus on the interactions among physical, conceptual and spiritual technologies within such systems. The paper emphasizes that purpose and vision appear to be essential features of successful human systems on Earth, and argues that this pattern will hold true in space. Specific contemporary examples of successful human systems are analyzed, and the model is also applied to the 17th and 18th century colonization efforts in North America. Understanding Space Settlements as Human Systems concludes with a proposal for a research program designed to yield more knowledge about human systems which can be directly applied to current space settlement and space manufacturing projects.
From Africa to the Stars: The Evolution of the Exploring Animal. Ben R. Finney, Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa; Eric M. Jones, Laboratory Fellow, Earth and Space Science Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Abstract: The expansion of genus Homo is traced through four stages. The first horainids left the ancestoral forests to colonize the savannas; their descendants, Homo erectus, utilized an emerging technology to fill the continents of the Old World. With rafts, canoes, and sailing craft Homo sapiens crossed the oceans and completed the settlement of planet. Mankind’s technological versitility and basic exploratory drives will soon lead to an expansion beyond the terrestrial cradle. Speciation, now stalled on EARTH, is expected to be rapid, especially after the expansion moves beyond the confines of the Solar Systems.
A Program to Develop Efficient Manned Operations in Space. Richard Kline, Director, Shuttle Applications/Space Station Programs, Grumman Aerospace Corporation.
Abstract: This paper addresses the issues associated with the role of man in space. It reviews the evolutionary development of man’s activities in space to date and current planning for a space station. A program for expanding on-orbit operations is described which uses a combination of man and machines to provde needed capabilities.
Reusable Commercial Space Processing Platforms. Dietrich E. Koelle, Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm, MBB ERNO, Space Division, Ottobrunn, West Germany.
Abstract: The paper deals with the new concept of reusable Shuttle platforms: it describes their special features and the specific applications. The first demonstration of this concept is performed by the SPAS-01 platform developed by MBB as commercial venture, launched on STS-07. Reusable platforms provide advantages for commercial space processing operations. They provide an essential cost reduction compared to previous alternatives, together with extended operation periods (several months) and high microgravity level. The characteristics of the EURECA platform are given and a commercial version (OMNI-SPAS) of similar performance is discussed. Finally,economic and cost aspects are dealt with for reusable platforms as well as for future permanent space platforms.
Should People, Robots, or Hybrids Operate a Space Station? Robert A. Frosch, former NASA Administrator, General Motors Corporation.
Abstract: There has been a schism between those who insist on doing everything in space with people and those who insist on doing everything with machines. It developed because of a difference in interests of the scientific community and manned flight operations. There has been a tendency to perpetuate these differences in that some NASA centers are devoted to manned flight and others to unmanned flight. The author proposes that hybrid systems which use one person to control large numbers of semi-intelligent machines may be the answer. In this way, operations in space need not be completely human-intensive or machine-intensive. Because of recent advances in robotics, it is suggested that this may be the time to apply some of these techniques to space. [Abstract only.]
Electrophoretic Purification of Cells in Space: Evaluation of Results from STS-3. Burton E. Sarnoff, M. Elaine Kunze, Paul Todd, Pennsylvania State University.
Abstract: Processes under consideration for zero-g manufacturing in space include electrophoretic purification of cells and molecules for pharmaceutical application. The absence of convection and sedimentation at zero-g permits up to 400-fold improvements in purification efficiency, because higher field strength and particle concentrations are possible. An electrophoresis experiments (“EEVT”) performed on Space Shuttle Flight STS-3 had as its goal the investigation of the electrophoretic behavior of animal cells in suspension more concentrated than possible on earth. The results of this collaborative experiment with Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center investigators were evaluated by simulating the conditions of temperature, ionic strength, and buffer composition (but not cell concentration) in laboratory electrophoresis experiments. The resulting laboratory values of electrophoretic mobilities were compared with those determined by computerized analysis of inflight photographs taken during two separate experiments at 11-minute intervals by the STS-3 astronauts. The comparison of laboratory results with STS-3 results indicates that zero-g electrophoresis of very high cell concentration (1 x 109 cells/cm3) is possible and not unexpectedly different from the electrophoresis of normal cell concentrations at unit gravity.
Power Requirements for Lunar Installations. J. Alex Gimarc, Patrick Air Force Base.
Abstract: Power requirements are critical for any kind of operation on the moon. The power source should be readily deployable, able to grow to meet future needs of the installation, require a minimum of human upkeep, and be essentially failure free. Night availability of power is also an important consideration for design. This paper reviews all available proposed lunar operations and proposes a nuclear reactor in the 1 – 500 megawatt electric range to fill power needs for future lunar operations.
Telecommunication Systems for Large-Scale Space Manufacturing Activity. Dean Olmstead, Stanford University; Martin A. Rothblatt, Schnader, Harrison, Segal & Lewis.
Abstract: Telecommunication systems for large-scale manufacturing activity are analyzed in terms of probable requirements, available frequency resources and desired network architecture. Separate analysis is provided for space manufacturing activity in earth orbit and in deep space. The paper suggests various design alternatives for meeting dispersed space communications requirements and considers interface options with terrestrial networks. The paper recommends adoption of a TDMA-based architecture and suggests spectrum allocation priorities for intersatellite and space operation radio services.
The Development of a Composite Beam Building Machine for On-Site Construction of Large Space Structures. W. Brandt Goldsworthy, President, Goldsworthy Engineering, Inc.
Abstract: Although originally conceived for the SSPS (Solar Satellite Power Station) project, the need for large structural beams exists for virtually every major space vehicle project. For example, the so-called “complexity inversion” means that the large installations which are currently earthbound will be moved into space providing world-wide communications at extremely low costs. Such orbiting major structures are certainly candidates for beam construction. Solar arrays for interim space colonization and industrialization would also undoubtedly benefit by availability of such structural members. Two primary drivers dictate the use of composites for beam construction: The first, is the need for the lowest density, highest strength material available on projects where the cost of transportation is so dominant. The second, is the requirement for the material of construction to have a zero thermal co-efficient of expansion. This paper will outline the material selection and the development of prototype feasibility demonstration equipment to continuously produce in space, 1-1/2 meters on a side, triangular truss beams with closed beam caps.
Design of the Electrophoresis Experiment for STS-4 and STS-6. David W. Richman, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company.
Abstract: During two days of tests on STS-4, we separated 3 different sample concentrations of a mixture of rat albumin and egg albumin. Analysis of the separated sample makes it clear just how dramatic the advantages of working in space are. The output concentration of the space samples was 125 times greater than the corresponding ground samples, and when you multiply this figure by 3.7 times greater cross section, you get 463 times greater quantity of separated material. Because our first test on STS-4 showed that we could dramatically increase quantity without degrading purity, we dicided to seek greater purity on our next space test. The STS-6 test results show that we were able to achieve more than 4 times better resolution or purity than is possible on Earth. In these two flights, we have verified both that our separation system works and that it will separate materials in the quantities and purities that are needed for a successful commercial operation.
Space Law: Current Status and Issues. S. Neil Hosenball, General Counsel, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Abstract: Discusses the development of space law over the past 25 years, procedures by which such law has been developed, the treaties that have been negotiated, the treaties that are currently in existence, and current issues before the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.
Major Concerns of Private Enterprise Regarding Recent Developments in Space Law. Stephen Gorove, Professor of Law, University of Mississippi Law Center.
Abstract: This presentation starts out by recalling one of the early concerns of private enterprise regarding the legitimacy of its activities in outer space. The discussion moves on to a consideration of some of the major concerns that have arisen in view of recent developments in space law. Among them are (1) unresolved issues pertaining to the use of the geostationary orbit, (2) similar issues regarding the exploitation of the Moon and other celestial bodies, (3) concerns about the international implications of direct television broadcasting by satellites, (4) misgivings about the adequacy of legal protection against damage, harm or interference which may occur in outer space and, finally, (5) concerns about the state of governmental regulatory procedures.
International Aspects of Commercial Space Activities. Kenneth S. Pedersen, Director of International Affairs Division, NASA.
Abstract: Space is increasingly being perceived as an important commercial arena, both in the U.S. and abroad. Many foreign countries are maintaining their space budgets at high levels and emphasizing areas of potential commercial payoff, including materials processing. As a result, these mature space nations are in better positions than ever to gain commercial benefits from space and cooperate with the U.S. NASA’s cooperative programs have been numerous and successful. One cooperative program of particular interest here is the ESA-developed Spacelab, which will be used, among other things, as a testbed for materials processing research. Several materials processing experiments are planned for future Spacelab flights, and the necessary materials processing equipment has been developed and will be reused on future Spacelab flights. Both independent and cooperative programs are producing additional materials processing facilities and experiments. For the future, NASA is studying the development of a manned Space Station that among other things could make numerous commercial activities possible, including space manufacturing, on a continuing basis. While Space Station is not yet an approved program, we are discussing its possible development with a number of foreign countries. If NASA proceeds with a Space Station, a number of highly interesting policy questions arise concerning potential international cooperation.
UNISPACE ’82 and the Private Sector. Richard DalBello, Gordon Law, Ray Williamson, Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress.
Abstract: UNISPACE ’82 underscored the changing attitudes of the global community towards outer space. More nations than ever before now employ space technology. These countries represent both a market and a competitive challenge for U.S. industry. UNISPACE ’82 demonstrated that significant long-term political trends in communications and space technologies are developing which are not necessarily in the best interests of the U.S. private sector.
A Legal Charter for Non-Governmental Space Industrialization. Martin A. Rothblatt: Schnader, Harrison, Segal & Lewis, Washington, DC.
Abstract: Existing international space law mandates that nongovernmental activity in outer space take place under the “authorization and continuing supervision” of a nation. Not yet addressed, however, is the necessary content of the required supervision and authorization. This paper specifies maximum and minimum legal bounds for the exercise of state supervision and authorization of non-governmental activity in outer space. These legal limits are specified for both international and United States law. It is shown that both existing U.S. law and current regulation theory mandates minimum exercise of state supervision and authorization for a defined class of space industrialization activity and specifies supervisory and control responsibilities. Finally, the paper delineates this class of space industrialization activity. The paper delineates this class of activity and specifies supervisory and control responsibilities. Finally, the paper provides suggested statutory language pursuant to which firms receive legal charters to engage in a broad class of space development activity. On the basis of existing space law treaties and other fundamental principles of international law, the paper shows that state exercise of supervision and authorization may range from state operation of all space activity to state responsibility for all space activity. In the United States, however, constitutional, statutory and regulatory policy considerations are shown to permit exercise of governmental supervision and authorization only when justified by national defense or public welfare considerations or when required by international law. Based on legal precedent and regulatory policy the paper examines the level of permissible governmental supervision and authorization for five classes of space industrialization activity — launch services, unmanned orbital operations, permanently manned orbital facilities, transorbital transportation services and nonterrestrial mining. It is found that the level of permissible governmental supervision and authorization varies directly with the probability that physical and/or economic harm may result times the magnitude of that harm. In order to determine a minimum level of governmental supervision and authorization, the five classes of space industrialization activity are circumscribed in such a way as to raise minimal national defense, public welfare or international law justifications for affirmative governmental intervention. It is found that private economic incentives, existing legal principles and mandatory insurance will effectively provide the circumscribed set of activities. As circumscribed, governmental responsibility for the space activities is shown to be fully met with only certain insurance and reporting requirements. The set of delineated space industrialization activity subject to minimal governmental supervision and authorization constitutes a “charter” which may be issued to any U.S. firm. Issuance of such charters is shown to satisfy the requirements of international space and U.S. domestic law. The contents of the charter, conditions for its issuance and reasons for its forfeiture are proposed in suggested statutory language for a Space Industrialization Act of 198X. Such an Act is shown to be capable of expediting space development without sacrificing the justifiable bases for governmental regulation of private space industrialization activity.
Making the High Frontier Highly Visible with a Solar Sail Race to the Moon. Guy Pignolet, Information Engineer at CNES (French Space Agency).
Abstract: The development of manufacturing facilities and space colonies is such a large enterprise that it needs the support from powerful political and socio-economical groups in order to proceed. The politicians and the decision-makers need to see recognition and acceptance of the project in the general public before they give their support. But, after 25 years of progress in the appropriation of Space, for most of the public around the world, the Space Adventure remains a fantasy, little more than a technological stunt. The commercial applications are ‘down to Earth’, and not connected to outer space development in the spirit of the public. A race to the Moon between several small Solar Sails might be used to attract the attention of billions of people to the reality of Space by giving them an unmediated ‘show’ to look at and to think about. The racing sails, which will remain visible from the surface of the Earth, can provide a sustained interest for the world-wide public, and give a ‘feeling’ of Space that can bring the High Frontier closer.
Emerging Government Regulation of American Space Entrepeneurs. James R. Myers: Andrews and Kurth, Washington, DC.
Abstract: Currently, national executive policy, enunciated in the Presidential Space Policy issued on July 4, 1982, is specifically designed to “provide a climate conducive to expanded private sector investment and involvement in space activities.” Private commercial ventures, which conduct business activities in outer space are subject to the approval and supervision of agencies of the Federal Government, especially the Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”), the State Department (“State”), and the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”). At present there is no single regulatory agency or comprehensive regulatory framework governing private entities doing business in outer space. Nationally, the FAA, State, and FCC are key regulatory agencies which have jurisdiction over different portions of current and proposed private space activities. Moreover, because of the lack of legislation delineating specific jurisdiction over launch operations, orbit transfer vehicles, space stations, remote sensing, positioning systems, materials processing, power generation, and data collection systems, several additional agencies and institutions have influence over the approvals process. These agencies include the U.S. Congress, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (“NASA”), the Department of Defense (“Defense”), National Security Council (and others in the intelligence community), the Department of Commerce, the Office of Management and Budget (“OMB”), the Office of Science and Technology Policy (“OSTP”), and most recently, the Senior Interagency Group for Space (“SIG Space”). In current practice, an adverse position or decision from any of these agencies or institutions has the potential for halting any rocket launch or space applications program. A number of bills have been introduced in the U.S. Congress (and more are expected) to regulate and promote private space activities. The United States participates in a number of international organizations which attempt to execute and implement agreements among national governments concerning space activities.
Solar Furnace Extraction of Volatiles, Metals and Ceramics from Nonterrestrial Materials. William N. Agosto, Lockheed Engineering and Management Services Company, Inc.
Abstract: King has shown that melting and partial evaporation of Columbia Plateau basalts, broadly comparable to lunar basalts, as well as samples of the Murchison and Allende meteorites in a solar furnace with a 2 meter diameter mirror at approximately 3000°C and pressures below 1mm of Hg, produced residues enriched in elemental iron and silicon as well as the oxides of aluminium, titanium and calcium. Agosto has shown that the silicate chemistry of the igneous stony-iron mesosiderite meteorites is consistent with phosphorus reduction of iron in space from meteoritic clinopyroxene silicates at solidus and igneous temperatures in excess of approximately 900°C. No terrestrially derived reagents are required in the above extraction processes and reactions. Since they can occur spontaneously over a wide range of solar furnace temperatures, these and related processes and reactions may form the basis of an extensive earth independent space materials extraction.
Lunar Ores. Stephen L. Gillett, Consulting Geologist.
Abstract: Exploitation of lunar resources need not be limited to merely scooping up homogeneous regolith. The Moon is a planet-sized body that has undergone large-scale chemical differentiation. The first order differentiation of the crust has greatly enriched the Moon’s crust in such useful lithophile elements as A1 and Ti. Further, from recent work on lunar geology it is becoming obvious that the Moon is a much more complicated body than has been thought. Despite the absence of lunar volatiles, orebodies formed by partial melting and recrystal-lization of magma appear to be probable on the Moon. Possible ores, among others, include enrichments of refractory, rare lithophile elements (e.g., Zr, Be, Nb, CI) related to KREEP differentiation; Cr in layered igneous intrusions; and chalcophile elements in immiscible sulfide droplets in a magma. Essentially pure anorthosite bodies (ores of Al) should also occur. Investigations that should be pursued include: extension of lunar geologic mapping with a lunar polar orbiter, to seek settings for ore formation; study of terrestrial analogs; and experiments on dry magma systems. Further, orebodies of rare, geochem-ically incompatible elements may be a common consequence of planetary differentiation; a planet-sized body has been “pre-processed” for some elements. The possible existence of such ores suggests that it is premature to write off planets as economic sources of elements. The political implications of such ores is also profound; space-based manufacturing cannot rely indefinitely on terrestrial sources for rare elements. Thus, the use of asteroidal and lunar/planetary resources is not an “either/or” proposition; the bodies have different chemistries and will be mined for different things.
Non-Electrolytic Route to Oxygen and Metallic Elements from Lunar Soil. R.D. Waldron, Rockwell International.
Abstract: Electrolysis of aqueous, molten salt or molten silicate systems has been proposed as the primary oxidation-reduction step for nearly every non-terrestrial material refining process. Due to the low intrinsic drift velocity of ions at practical field strengths, electrolysis possesses very low mass transport rates per unit area and hence very large capital masses per unit output rate. A two step non-electrolytic method of producing metallic sodium and oxygen gas sequentially from sodium oxide is proposed using iron, nickel or copper in elemental or oxide form. The sodium oxide is obtained by vapor transport from sodium complex oxides or sodium containing magmas. The sodium can be used to recover iron, silicon and TiO from raw, beneficiated or refined lunar fractions, and these, in turn, can be used to obtain elemental aluminum, magnesium,titanium and calcium.
Electrostatic Separation of Binary Comminuted Mineral Mixtures. William N. Agosto, Lockheed Engineering and Management Services Company, Inc.
Abstract: Comminuted mixtures of terrestrial ol ivine/anorthite, anorthite/pyroxene, ilmenite/olivine and olivine/pyroxene in four size ranges from 45 to 500 microns have been separated in electrostatic mineral separators designed and built by Lockheed at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The following electrostatic grades and recoveries, respectively, have been obtained from mixtures in the 150 to 250 micron size range at one atmosphere and about 200°C after one pass: ilmenite from 10/90 Il/Ol mixtures, 95 and 68 wt%; anorthite from 50/50 An/Px mixtures, 96 and 17 wt%; olivine from 10/90 OlAn mixtures, 94 and 34 wt%; pyroxene from 50/50 Ol/Px mixtures, 95 and 81 wt%. The data are preliminary to the design of a lunar soil mineral separator for lunar base and space industrial applications. Contact charging of nonconductor and induction charging of semiconductor mineral species in the 150 to 250 micron range are estimated from electrostatic displacement data to be in the area of 10-14 coulomb and are in good agreement both in magnitude and polarity with more direct measurements made by other researchers. Attempts to separate mineral fines <45 microns, electrostatically, have been unsuccessful. However, the data suggest that air resistance is the limiting factor and that vacuum operation may solve the problem.
Laboratory Investigation of HF Acid Leach Process for Refining Lunar Materials: Preliminary Results. R.D. Waldron, Rockwell International.
Abstract: Results of a laboratory program investigating major steps of the HF acid leach process for lunar materials processing are summarized. All of the major high temperature steps except those which are or have been in commercial or pilot plant production were studied. Investigations of aqueous chemical separations should be completed later this year. No major obstacles to successful process have been discovered to date. Reagent attrition for all key lunar deficient elements (H, F, N, Na, S) is projected to be below input rates except for F and possibly N. Combined net reagent replacement mass requirements can, with virtual certainty, be held substantially below one part per thousand of processed mass. A detailed sizing and power analysis of the process has been completed. A processing plant with power supply, space radiator and complete reagent inventory could process its own mass in 72.4 hr while a plant with reduced O, S, and Na inventory could process its own mass in 49.6 hr with a cumulative delay in output equivalent to 93 days of full production. [Abstract only.]
A Method for Mining Lunar Soil. Richard E. Gertsch, Independent Consultant.
Abstract: Intended as a thought experiment to aid evaluating lunar strip mining systems, a concept design for a mining method is presented. Known as a three drum cable-way scraper-bucket or slusher, the method specifically addresses lunar environmental conditions and meets the resource needs of a space industrialization system. Selected for its simplicity, it lessens project start-up problems, eliminates low gee traction dependency, lowers lift weight, and lowers capital and operating costs without sacrificing production flexibility. These and other features make the slusher a viable candidate for a lunar mine.
Processing of Extraterrestrial Materials by High Temperature Vacuum Vaporization. Robert T. Grimley, Michael E. Lipschutz, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University.
Abstract: The construction of space stations and life support in this environment require the recovery and separation of extraterrestrial materials in space. One possible means of effecting separation is high temperature vacuum vaporization. Trace element data determined by neutron activation analysis of meteorites heated to 1400°C in vacuum will be summarized. Our principal tool, high temperature mass spectrometry, will be used to examine the vaporization thermodynamics and kinetics of major and minor elements from complex multicomponent extraterrestrial materials (lunar and meteoritic, i.e. asteroidal). The apparatus, approach, and preliminary results will be discussed.
Extraction and Purification of Iron-Group and Precious Metals from Asteroidal Feedstocks. John S. Lewis, Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona; Stewart Nozette, California Space Institute, University of California at San Diego.
b>Abstract: The metals present in near-Earth Asteroids are potential resources for use in space and on Earth. We report on an evaluation of the gaseous carbonyl (Mond) process as a technique for the processing and refining of asteroidal metals. This process could produce large quantities of pure iron and nickel for space use, and could affect separation of cobalt and platinum group metals from asteroidal feedstocks.
Interstellar Nomads. Eric M. Jones, Earth and Space Science Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ben R. Finney, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Monoa.
Abstract: Interstellar comets, those not bound by the gravitational field of any star, are expected to be scattered through interstellar space with an average separation of about 9 astronomical units. A typical comet (1016 grams) can supply energy, in the forms of deuterium for fusion generators and starlight collected with giant mirrors built of cometary aluminum, sufficient to support a community of several hundred people indefinitely. Although there is sufficient deuterium in each comet to permit clustering with other comets and, hence, the growth of very large communities, we expect that a typical community might be comprised of 500 people divided into bands of about 25. Each band might live in a spacious habitat built of cometary materials and tend (with considerable help from robots and computers) a “farm” of starlight mirrors about 30,000 km across. The bands would exchange marriageable youths and gather at intervals for community rituals. We base our expectations on the analogy of the Earth’s surviving hunter/gatherer peoples who represent the remnants of a life style that has been dominant in human development.
Mining the Earth-Approaching Asteroids for their Precious and Strategic Metals. Brian O’Leary, Senior Scientist, Science Applications, Inc.
Abstract: Meteorites contain anomolously high abundances of platinum-group and other precious and strategic metals compared to the Earth’s crustal abundance. The Earth-approaching asteroids are also likely to be abundant in these materials. A scenario is described where some of these metals are zone-refined in situ by a solar concentrating mirror and returned to the Earth. The technology required is currently available and operational costs of the first missions could be offset by economic and/or strategic gain. Extraordinary opportunities to visit the asteroid 1982 DB will occur during its close approach to Earth in 2001. Phobos and Deimos are also potential targets.
Mass Driver III: Construction, Testing and Comparison to Computer Simulation. Leslie O. Snively, Gerard K. O’Neill, Princeton University.
Abstract: The details of the construction of Mass-Driver III are given. MDIII is a 20 coil, 0.50 m, pull-only electromagnetic launcher designed to accelerate a 40 gram “bucket” at 18,000 m/sec2. Preliminary measurements at less than full power indicate that accelerations of 11,000 m/sec2 have been generated leading to velocities of 20 m/sec through the first few coils. A comparison is made to a computer simulation of this mass-driver design and the values obtained from that program agree with the measured value within experimental error.
Contemporary Business Outlook for Large Space Ventures: Financing, Management, Construction. Todd B. Hawley, George Washington University.
Abstract: This paper discusses the outlook for privately financed, managed and constructed large space ventures within the confines of today’s free-market business infrastructure. The characteristics of Earth-based macroprojects are outlined and shown to parallel the requirements of a proposed large space venture scenario. By focusing on two existing corporations and their relevant macroproject experiences, the paper formulates an existence proof which suggests that a large space venture could be handled with success by contemporary private businesses.
The Economics of Space Manufacturing: Some Fundamental Propositions. Alex G. Vicas, Department of Economics and Centre for Research of Air and Space Law, McGill University.
Abstract: The paper examines the rationale of market failure to provide an optimal development of space manufacturing, and the consequent need for public intervention. The optimum development of space manufacturing is formally modeled as a problem of allocating terrestrial resources to an activity with an uncertain payoff. Two sources of market failure are examined: the lack of markets for certain types of risks and the public-goods nature of technical knowledge.
International Competition in Commercial Aerospace Markets. Ann M. Deering, Johnson & Higgins, New York; William A. Good, President, Earth Space Transport Systems Corporation.
Abstract: The U.S. has not approached the subject of space commerce in a way which takes the best advantage of its competitive free enterprise system. Many lessons can be learned by closely examining the relationship between government and entrepreneurs in the early days of air commerce. A review of recent international trends in commercial space technology shows that the U.S. is not maintaining the technological leadership to which it is committed due to a suboptimal government/industry relationship vis a vis other industrialized nations.
The Global Commons Revisited — Regional Versus Global Strategies in Orbit Spectrum Management. Harvey J. Levin, Professor of Economics, Hofstra University.
Abstract: (1) The “commoness” of common pool resources, and their optimal management unit may but need not be global in character. (2) In orbit spectrum, e.g., the degree of “globalness” often depends on the purpose to which the resource is put, and the service it facilitates. These range from the classic global commons in HF broadcast spectrum (with signal interference patterns that girdle the globe), to land mobile radio, TV broadcasting, and ground microwave links, where, except for border-area coordination to avoid trans-border spill-over effects, nations, regions, and localities are free to use radio frequencies virtually at will. (3) Where common resources are indeed managed regionally, the number of parties to any agreement will be far fewer, and the resulting multilateral exchange costs far smaller, than for multilateral global administrative radio conferences. Use of orbit spectrum could in principle be optimized by subjecting it to sole ownership. (4) User consortia may on several counts operate to reduce congestion or saturation of orbit spectrum, and thus to act to reduce the “globalness” to its common pool character. (5) A special case can be made for developing regional user consortia to reduce congestion, saturation, and hence the “globalness” of the orbit spectrum commons. These regional consortia would do both by reducing the LDC’s need for individual national assignments, and by inducing global consortia to better meet LDC needs without those countries having to press their own claims.
Encouraging Business Ventures in Space Technologies. Erasmus H. Kloman, National Academy of Public Administration.
Abstract: The issues analyzed in this investigation concern the relationships between the public and private sectors in the commercial utilization of the space environment and the requirements of a policy framework conducive to business ventures based on space technologies. The study was undertaken by a Panel of the National Academv of Public Administration formed for this purpose at the request of the National Aeronafutics and Space Administration. The issues prompting NASA to request the study arose from the novel circumstances leading to the stated policv of the Federal Government to encourage private investment in space enterprises. However, the specialized concerns addressed here are an important part of a more general dialogue regarding the search for business-government relationships favorable to technological innovation and the renewal of American competitiveness in global markets. A major theme emerging from the Panel’s deliberations is the need for business and government teamwork in rebuilding and exploiting the research and development capabilities of the United States. The paper that follows is a summary of the principal findings and recommendations of the Panel’s report which was released on May 3, 1983.
Finding Place in Space for Private Enterprise. Per Magnus Wijkman, Head of the Research Secretariat, Swedish Board of Commerce.
Abstract: Space resources are becoming scarce. Free access to them will result in conflict and inefficiency. This paper argues that pricing scarce resources — i.e. by auctioning user rights — is necessary for economic efficiency. It suggests how this can be done while maintaining space as a common heritage of mankind.